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Its boundaries have changed considerably over time; however, it came to be defined as the modern geographical region by the mid 19th century. Nowadays the region is considered to include parts of six Balkan countries: Its oldest known settlements date back approximately to 7, BC. From the middle of the 4th century BC, the Kingdom of Macedon became the dominant power on the Balkan Peninsula; since then Macedonia has had a diverse history.
The definition of Macedonia has changed several times throughout history. Kingdom of Perdiccas I: Kingdom of Alexander I: All the above provinces plus the eastern annexations CrestoniaBisaltia and the western annexations ElimiotisOrestis and Lynkestis.
Kingdom of Philip II: All the above provinces plus the appendages of Pelagonia and Macedonian Paeonia to the north, SintikeOdomantis and Edonis to the east and the Chalkidike to the south.
In the 2nd century, Macedonia covered approximately the area where it is considered to be today, but the northern regions of today Republic of Macedonia were not identified as Macedonian lands.
The Roman province of Macedonia consisted of what is today Northern and Central Greece, much of the geographical area of the present-day Republic of Macedonia and southeast Albania. Simply put, the Romans created a much larger administrative area under that name than the original ancient Macedon. In late Roman times, the provincial boundaries were reorganized to form the Diocese of Macedoniaconsisting of most of modern mainland Greece right across the Aegean to include Cretesouthern Albania, parts of south-west Bulgaria and southern Republic of Macedonia.
In the Byzantine Empire, a province under the name of Macedonia was carved out of the original Theme of Thracewhich was well east of the Struma River. With the gradual conquest of southeastern Europe by the Ottomans in the late 14th century, the name of Macedonia disappeared as an administrative designation for several centuries and was rarely displayed on maps.
The name was again revived to mean a distinct geographical region in the 19th century,   defining the region bounded by Mount Olympusthe Pindus range, mounts Shar and Osogovothe western Rhodopesthe lower course of the river Mesta Greek Nestos and the Aegean Sea developing roughly the same borders that it has today.
While Macedonia shows signs of human habitation as old as the paleolithic period among which is the Petralona cave with the oldest European humanoidthe earliest known settlements, such as Nea Nikomedeia in Imathia today’s Greek Macedoniadate back 9, years. The cultural assemblage includes well-made pottery in simple shapes with occasional decoration in white on a red background, clay female figurines of the ‘rod-headed’ type known from Thessaly to the Danube Valleystone axes and adzes, chert blades, and ornaments of stone including curious ‘nose plugs’ of uncertain function.
The assemblage of associated objects differs from one house to the next, suggesting some degree of craft specialisation had already been established from the beginning of the site’s history. The farming economy was based on the cultivation of cereal crops such as wheat and barley and pulses and on the herding of sheep and goats, with some cattle and pigs. Hunting played a relatively minor role in the economy. Surviving from to BCE, this Early Neolithic settlement was occupied for over a thousand years.
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The Middle Neolithic period c. Pottery of this date has been found at a number of sites in Central and Eastern Macedonia but so far none has been extensively excavated. The Late Neolithic period c. Rapid changes in pottery styles, and the discovery of fragments of pottery showing trade with quite distant regions, indicate that society, economy and technology were all changing rapidly. Among the most important of these changes were the start of copper working, convincingly demonstrated by Renfrew to have been learnt from the cultural groups of Bulgaria and Roumania to the North.
Some of these sites were densely occupied and formed large mounds known to the local inhabitants of the region today as ‘toumbas’. Others were much less densely occupied and spread for as much as a kilometer Makryialos.
Both types are found at the same time in the same districts and it is presumed that differences in social organisation are reflected by these differences in settlement organisation. Some communities were clearly concerned to protect themselves with different kinds of defensive arrangements: The best preserved buildings were discovered at Dikili Tas, where long timber-framed structures had been organised in rows and some had been decorated with bulls’ skulls fastened to the outside of the walls and plastered over with clay.
Remarkable evidence for cult activity has been found at Promachonas -Topolnica, which straddles the Greek Bulgarian border to the north of Serres. Here a deep pit appeared to have been roofed to make a subterranean room; in it were successive layers of debris including large numbers of figurines, bulls’ skulls, and pottery, including several rare and unusual shapes. The farming economy of this period continued the practices established at the beginning of the Neolithic, although sheep and goats were less dominant among the animals than they had previously been, and the cultivation of vines Vitis vinifera is well attested.
Only a few burials have been discovered from the whole of the Neolithic period in northern Greece and no clear pattern can be deduced. Grave offerings, however, seem to have been very limited. In classical times, the region of Macedonia comprised parts of what at the time was known as Macedonia, Illyria and Thrace.
Among others, in its lands were located the kingdoms of Paeonia, Dardania, Macedonia and Pelagonia, historical tribes like the Agrianes, and colonies of southern Greek city states. Prior to the Macedonian ascendancy, parts of southern Macedonia were populated by the Bryges while western, i.
Whilst numerous wars are later recorded between the Illyrian and Macedonian Kingdoms, the Bryges might have co-existed peacefully with the Macedonians. Alexander’s conquests produced a lasting extension of Hellenistic culture and thought across the ancient Near Eastbut his empire broke up on his death.
His generals divided the empire between them, founding their own states and dynasties. The kingdom of Macedon was taken by Cassanderwho ruled it until his death in BC. At the time, Macedonian control over the Thracoillyrian states of the region slowly waned, although the kingdom of Macedonia remained the most potent regional power. This period also saw several Celtic invasions into Macedonia. However, the Celts were each time successfully repelled by Cassander, and later Antigonus, leaving little overall influence on the region.
Macedonian sovereignty in the region was brought to an end at the hands of the rising power of Rome in the 2nd century BC. Philip V of Macedon took his kingdom to war against the Romans in two wars during his reign BC. Although he survived war with Rome, his successor Perseus of Macedon reigned BC did not; having taken Macedon into the Third Macedonian War in BChe lost his kingdom when he was defeated.
Macedonia was initially divided into four republics subject to Rome before finally being annexed in BC as a Roman province.
Around this time, vulgar Latin was introduced in the Balkans by Latin-speaking colonists and military personnel. The population of the entire region was, however, depleted by destructive invasions of various Gothic and Hun tribes c. Despite this, other parts of the Byzantine empire continued to flourish, in particular some coastal cities such as Thessaloniki became important trade and cultural centres. Despite the empire’s power, from nakedonya beginning of the 6th century the Byzantine dominions jakedonya subject to frequent raids by various Slavic tribes which, in the course of centuries, eventually resulted in drastic demographic and cultural changes in the Empire’s Balkan provinces.
Although traditional scholarship attributes these changes to large-scale makedomya by Slavic-speaking groups, it has been proposed that a generalized dissipation of Roman identity might have commenced in the 3rd century, especially among rural provincials who were crippled by harsh taxation and famines. Given this background, penetrations carried by successive waves of relatively small numbers of Slavic warriors mwkedonya their families might have been capable of assimilating large numbers of indigenes into their cultural model, which was sometimes seen as a more attractive alternative.
In this way and in the course of time, great parts of Macedonia came to be controlled by Slavic-speaking communities.
Despite numerous attacks on Thessaloniki, the city held out, and Byzantine-Roman culture continued to flourish, although Slavic cultural influence steadily increased. The Slavic settlements organized themselves along tribal makesonya territorially based lines which were referred to by Byzantine Greek historians as “Sklaviniai”.
The Sklaviniai continued to intermittently assault the Byzantine Empire, either independently, or aided by Bulgar or Avar contingents.
Around AD a “Bulgar” group which was largely composed of the descendants of former Makednoya Christians taken captive by the Avarsled by Khan Kuber theorized to have belonged to the same clan as the Danubian Bulgarian khan Asparukhsettled in the Pelagonian plain mkaedonya, and launched campaigns to the region of Thessaloniki. When the Empire could spare imperial troops, it attempted to regain control of its lost Balkan territories.
By the time of Constans II a significant number of the Slavs makedony Macedonia were captured and transferred to central Asia Minor where they were forced to recognize the authority of the Byzantine emperor and serve in his ranks. In the late 7th century, Justinian II again organized a massive expedition against the Sklaviniai and Bulgars of Macedonia.
Launching from Constantinople, he subdued many Slavic tribes and established the Theme of Thrace in the hinterland of the Makevonya City, and pushed on 100 Thessaloniki. However, on his return he was ambushed by the Slavo-Bulgars of Kuber, losing a great part of his army, booty, and subsequently his throne. The emperors rather resorted to withdrawing their defensive line south along the Aegean coast, until the late 8th century. Although a new theme—that of “Macedonia”—was subsequently created, it did not correspond to today’s geographic territory, but one farther east centred on Adrianoplecarved out of the already existing Thracian and Helladic themes.
Slavic influence in the region strengthened along with the rise of this state, which incorporated parts of the region to its domain in In the early s Saints Cyril and Makedonhatwo Byzantine Greek brothers from Thessaloniki, created the first Slavic Glagolitic alphabet in which the Old Church Slavonic language was first transcribed, and are thus commonly referred to as the apostles of the Slavic world.
Their cultural heritage was acquired and developed in medieval Bulgaria, where after the region of Ohrid present-day Republic of Macedonia became a significant ecclesiastical center with the nomination of the Saint Clement of Ohrid for “first archbishop in Bulgarian language” with residence in this region. In conjunction with another disciple of Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint NaumClement created a flourishing Slavic cultural center around Ohrid, where pupils were taught theology in the Old Church Slavonic language and the Glagolitic and Cyrillic script at what is now called Ohrid Literary School.
According to the Byzantine author John Kaminiatesat that time the neighbouring settlements around Thessaloniki were inhabited by “Scythians” Bulgarians and the Slavic tribes of Drugubites and Sagudatesin addition to Greeks. At the end of the 10th century, what is now the Republic of Macedonia became the political and cultural heartland of the First Bulgarian Empireafter Byzantine emperors John I Tzimiskes conquered the eastern part of the Bulgarian state mkaedonya the Rus’—Byzantine War of — A new capital was established at Ohrid, which also became the seat of the Bulgarian Patriarchate.
A new dynasty, that of the Comitopuli under Tsar Samuil and his successors, continued resistance against the Byzantines for several more decades, before also succumbing in The western part of 1900 including Macedonia 1090 incorporated into the Byzantine Empire as the province of Bulgaria Theme of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian Patriarchate was reduced in rank makedonja an Archbishopric.
Intermittent Slavic uprisings continued to occur, often with the support of the Serbian princedoms to the north. Any temporary independence that might have been gained was usually crushed swiftly by the Byzantines. It was also marked by periods of war between the Normans and Byzantium. The Normans launched offensives from their lands acquired in southern Italy, and temporarily gained rule over small areas in the northwestern coast.
In the 13th century, following the Fourth CrusadeMacedonia was disputed among Byzantine GreeksLatin crusaders of the short-lived Kingdom of Thessalonicaand the revived Bulgarian state. Most of southern Macedonia was secured by the Despotate of Epirus and then by the Empire of Nicaeawhile the north was ruled by Bulgaria. After however, all of Macedonia returned to Byzantine rule, where it largely remained until the Byzantine civil war of — Taking advantage of this conflict, the Serb ruler Stefan Dushan expanded his realm and founded the Serbian Empirewhich included all of Macedonia, northern and central Greece — excluding Thessaloniki, Athens and the Peloponnese.
Dushan’s empire however broke up shortly after his death in At this time, the Ottoman threat was looming in the Balkans, as the Ottomans defeated the various Christian principalities, whether Serb, Bulgarian or Greek. After the Ottoman victory in the Battle of Maritsa inmost of Macedonia accepted vassalage to the Ottomans and by the end of the 14th century the Ottoman Empire fully annexed it.
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Macedonia remained a part of the Ottoman Empire for nearly years, during which time it gained a substantial Makddonya minority. Thessaloniki later become the home of a large Sephardi Jewish population following the expulsions of Jews after from Spain. Over the centuries Macedonia mmakedonya become a multicultural region.
From the Middle Ages to the early 20th century the Slavic-speaking population in Macedonia was identified mostly as Bulgarian. During the period of Bulgarian National Revival many Bulgarians from these regions supported the struggle for creation of Bulgarian cultural educational and religious institutions, including Bulgarian Exarchate. Krste Misirkova philologist and publicist, mostly known for his work “On the Macedonian Matters”heralded by Macedonians as one of the “founders of the Macedonian nation”, stated:.
Some will ask why I speak of breaking away from the Bulgarians when in the past we have even called ourselves Bulgarians and when it is generally accepted that unification creates strength, and not separation.
And, anyway, what sort of new Macedonian nation can this be when we and our fathers and grandfathers and great-grandfathers have always been called Bulgarians? After the revival of Greek, Serbian, and Bulgarian statehood in the 19th century, the Ottoman lands in Europe that became identified as “Macedonia”, were contested by all three governments, leading to the creation in the s and s of rival armed groups who divided their efforts between fighting the Turks and one another.