A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language and Language Learning) [J.C. Catford] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. J. C. Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistics – pages. Get this from a library! A linguistic theory of translation, by j.c. catford.. [J c Catford].
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Full text of “A Linguistic Theory Of Translation Oxford Univ. Press ( )”
Only 3, the free translation, is interchangeable with the SL text in situations. Thus, if we find that two languages operate each with grammatical units at five ranks an example might be English and French, both of which appear to have five ranks: Broadly speaking, the cases where this happens fall into two categories.
A contemporary etat de langue of the SL may normally be regarded as unmarked, only archaic varieties being marked. He has wide and varied teaching experience, having worked for several years for the British Council in Greece, Egypt, and Palestine, and subsequently in the Universities of Edinburgh and Michigan.
The markers of styles may be lexical, grammatical or phono- logical. Refresh and try again. In translation, however, it quite frequently happens that this formal correspondence is departed from, i. These include the following: It can occur, receptively, as in the example just given, and it occurs productively, though inadvertently, in the imperfect pronunciation of someone speak- ing a foreign language.
Bernard Smette – unknown. On the Translatability of Jokes. The distinction between- grammar and lexis is not absolute, but rather in the nature of a dine, with very well marked poles, but some overlap in between. The total range of situational features relatable to the contextual meaning of democracy includes features which are present in some national and political situations but absent from others — the co- text generally guides the reader to selection of the appropriate situational features in any particular case.
Thus, in English, clauses normally operate as exponents of elements of sentence-structure. Thus, in the examples above, the feet represented in A B G. Where number is a system of the Nominal group as in English the terms in the system are themselves sub-groups or sub-classes of the class.
A Linguistic Theory of Translation
In place of these the form bogop is used: Those repre- sented by A B C D. By text we mean any stretch of language, spoken or written, which is under discussion. For other purposes we may specify sub-varieties within these broad categories, e.
Here the actual situational features relatable to WE are the speaker S and at least one other O ; the addressee A is excluded. The following is an example where equivalence can be established to some extent right down to morpheme rank: In such a case, the same effect of explicit, contrastive, reference to completion may have to be translated into English by a change of lexical item. The substantial features relevant to a phono- logical unit or item are sounds produced in a human vocal tract.
There are specific objects, events, relations and so on, in the situation, which lead the performer to produce these particular vocal movements, and no others. In this case, translation is virtually impossible — an example is given in For the equivalent English text the sex of the performer was linguistically irrelevant — i.
Language, Translation and the Telematic City. In terms of distinctive phonic features the Sindhi system is 1 A fact which is very troublesome for Greek beginners in English, the situation being further complicated, as D.
A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language & Language Learning)
In other words we can attribute the relative untranslata- bility of the two SL items to a purely formal linguistic feature — unusualness of collocation. Certainly not its formal grammatical meaning: The exponent of S in the English text is the item thisa term in the system of English deictics; the Arabic translation equi- valent is haada. The first foot What did you and the last foot yesterday each consist of three syllables: It is possible, however, to make a translation which ov total in the .jc.catford given in 2.
Thus the syllables represented in orthography by tea, car, now exemplify the structure KN, those represented by cat, stop, lumps, etc. H headM modifier and Q, qualifier. Clearly, then, any theory of translation must draw upon a theory of language — a general linguistic theory. Thanks for telling us about the problem. K r NK a top, stop, stops, etc. We say, then, that the Russian equivalent of a in this text is nil.
If we a dd4icu: Neither is very close: It is only rarely that the functionally relevant situational features related to home include that nebulous sentimentality which is supposed not to be related to lexical items in other languages — e. His grandmother has travelled down the Volga from Nijni Novgorod to look after the family. Moreover, in each language, the system is one of two terms — singular and plural — and these terms may w be regarded as formally cor- responding.
Language, oc we said above, is patterned behaviour. Grapho- logical translation is sometimes practised deliberately, for special typographic effects, and also occurs involuntarily in the per- formance of persons writing a foreign language.
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Translation as an Epistemological Tool. The primary group classes are Verbaloperating at P in clause structure, Nominal, operating at S or C in clause structure, and Adverbialoperating at A in clause structure.
We stated in 1. It is clear, however, that this translation is unsatisfactory.